Tympanoplasty surgery is a procedure undertaken to rebuild a perforated eardrum or the middle ear’s tiny bones. The aforementioned perforation may be the result of an infection or or from any injury sustained by the eardrum.
The tympanoplasty surgery is performed by making an incision through the ear, and taking a graft for rebuilding the tympanic membrane. This surgery is performed under local anesthesia, with the time taken being about 2 to 3 hours.
Reasons for which the surgery might be required
- Congenital ear lobe defect
- Stretched earlobe
- Some disease
- A mishap during sports such as wrestling
What is Tympanoplasty ?
Tympanoplasty (eardrum repair) is a surgical procedure to rebuild a perforated eardrum (tympanic membrane) or the middle ear’s tiny bones. The problem of the tympanic membrane may be the outcome of severe infection or from any trauma to the eardrum. There are three layers of the tympanic membrane. Both inner and outer layers have epithelium cells. The condition of perforations can be due to defects in the middle ear that includes elastic collagen fibers. The small perforations can be easily healed but in the case of larger defect, the process of healing is hindered. The reasons for perforated eardrums could be an outcome of trauma like a slap on the ear, an explosion or any object in the ear. The aim of tympanoplasty surgery is to restore the perforated eardrum and also the middle ear bones consisting of stapes, incus and malleus.
The surgical procedure can be performed by following the trascanal approach (ear canal) and starts by making an incision either through the ear or at the back of the ear. To rebuild the tympanic membrane, a graft is taken. The tragus and the temporalis fascia are the common graft sites. The surgery takes place under local anesthesia and takes about 2-3 hours to complete. The time taken usually depends upon the approach undertaken. The procedure is done on an inpatient basis and the success rate is as high as 80-90%.
The human ear is made up of three parts. The first part of the outer ear that gathers sound, then the middle ear is joined to the outer ear on every side of the head. Further deeper, there is also an inner ear on every side. In between the outer and middle ear, the ear drum stretches across the most deepest section of the ear tube. Children having a hole in the eardrum will result in perforation. This could be the result of-
The trauma of the drum is caused by using the cotton swabs to clean the ears
Repeated infections of the ear
- The earlier placement of tubes in the ear in order to drain the fluid that accumulates behind the eardrum
- The germs can also enter through the hole that can further lead to ear infection
- The hearing is largely affected as the hole stops the normal vibration of the eardrum. The hearing can be improved and ear infections can be prevented by sealing up the hole. The improvement in the hearing depends upon the size of the hole.