Pediatric Neurosurgery in India
Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system. pediatric and adult patients are included in the neurological care
Pediatric neurological surgery is a discipline of medicine and the specialty of neurosurgery which deals with the diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of disorders of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems of of children .It is the practice of neurosurgery on patients under the age of eighteen. The Pediatric Neurosurgery specializes in the evaluation and treatment of children with a range of neurosurgical disorders, such as brain tumors, spasticity, movement disorders, intractable epilepsy, hydrocephalus, craniosynostosis, head injuries, and spina bifida, as well as other cranial malformations and spinal deformities.
different types of diseases/conditions treated by Pediatric neurosurgeons are
Epilepsy : Epilepsy is a chronic disorder, the hallmark of which is recurrent, unprovoked seizures. Many people with epilepsy have more than one type of seizure and may have other symptoms of neurological problems as well.
Hydrocephalus: Hydrocephalus is a condition that occurs when fluid builds up in the skull and causes the brain to swell. The name means “water on the brain.”
Brain damage can occur as a result of the fluid buildup. This can lead to developmental, physical, and intellectual impairments. It requires treatment to prevent serious complications
Spasticity : Spasticity is a muscle control disorder that is characterized by tight or stiff muscles and an inability to control those muscles. Spasticity is caused by an imbalance of signals from the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) to the muscles
Brain and spinal cord tumors : Brain and spinal cord tumors are masses of abnormal cells in the brain or spinal cord that have grown out of control. Brain and spinal cord tumors tend to be different in adults and children. They often form in different areas, develop from different cell types, and may have a different outlook and treatment.
Craniosynostosis : Craniosynostosis consists of premature fusion of 1 or more cranial sutures, often resulting in an abnormal head shape. It may result from a primary defect of ossification (primary craniosynostosis) or, more commonly, from a failure of brain growth (secondary craniosynostosis). Simple craniosynostosis is a term used when only 1 suture fuses prematurely. Complex or compound craniosynostosis is used to describe premature fusion of multiple sutures. When children with craniosynostosis, usually complex, also display other body deformities, this is termed syndromic craniosynostosis.
Chairi Malformations ; Chiari malformations are structural defects in the cerebellum. That’s the part of the brain that controls balance. Chiari malformations are usually caused by structural defects in thebrain and spinal cord. These defects develop during fetal development
Pediatric Spinal Disorder :spine disorders in children are often associated with pain, weakness, or deformity. A large number of traumatic, developmental, neoplastic and congenital disorders can occur in pediatric age group.. Pediatric spinal disorders treatment and diagnosis varies from adult spinal disorders.
Cerebral Palsy: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is a broad term used to describe a group of chronic “palsies” — disorders that impair control of movement due to damage to the developing brain. CP usually develops by age 2 or 3 and is a nonprogressive brain disorder, meaning the brain damage does not continue to worsen throughout life.
Symptoms of Pediatric Neurological Disorders
cular stroke. Each of these disorders can have a major impact on a child’s life, making it important to be able to identify major symptoms in order to more readily seek out a treatment path.
- Poor Muscle Coordination
- Muscle Tone Issues
- Concentration Issues
- Diagnosis of Pediatric Disorders
There are many different diagnostic tests that may help to evaluate the functioning of the nervous system.
Evaluating and diagnosing nervous system problems can be complicated. Many of the same symptoms occur in different ways among the different disorders. And, many disorders do not have clear causes, markers, or tests.
Neurological tests to evaluate children may include:
- Psychological and educational evaluations
- Computed tomography scan (also called a CT or CAT scan). This imaging procedure uses X-rays and computer technology to make horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the brain, bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general X-rays. This test can be done quickly and most children can undergo a CT scan without sedation.
- Electroencephalogram (EEG).This procedure records the brain’s continuous, electrical activity through electrodes attached to the scalp.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This procedure uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to make detailed images of organs and structures within the body. This study can’t be done if your child has any metal in their body. This includes braces, or certain dental appliances. Sometimes it is necessary to remove braces or dental devices in preparation for an MRI. Talk to your child’s healthcare provider to determine if this is necessary. MRI studies take longer than CT, and the machine makes a lot of noise. Young children may require sedation to remain still throughout the MRI exam.
- Electrodiagnostic tests (for example, electromyography and nerve conduction velocity). Thesestudies evaluate and diagnose disorders of the nerves, muscles and motor neurons. Electrodes are inserted into the muscle, or placed on the skin overlying a nerve, muscle, or muscle group, and electrical activity and muscle response are recorded.
- Positron emission tomography (PET) scan. This computer-based imaging test provides a picture of the brain’s activity rather than its structure by measuring levels of an injected substance with a tracer molecule, most often glucose.
- Arteriogram (also called angiogram). This procedure provides an image of arteries and veins going to and through the brain. CT angiography, a newer and less invasive technique, is sometimes used.
- Cerebral spinal fluid analysis (also called spinal tap or lumbar puncture). This test takes a sample of cerebrospinal fluid from the spinal cord for examination.
- Evoked potentials.This test records the brain’s electrical response to visual, auditory, and sensory stimuli.
- A procedure that uses dye injected into the spinal canal to make the structure clearly visible on X-rays. Though once common, this is rarely used.
- Ultrasound (also called sonography). This test uses high-frequency sound waves and a computer to create images of blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Ultrasounds are used to view internal organs as they function, and to assess blood flow through various vessels. Ultrasound of the brain can only be done in the first few months of life while the infant’s fontanels, or soft spots, are open.
- This test uses ultra high-frequency sound waves to evaluate structures of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and other structures
Treatments for Pediatric Diseases
the idea of neurological problems can be scary for you and your child. pediatric neurology specialists provide expert care that’s as compassionate as it is technologically advanced. Whether your child has an injury or a neurological condition.