The branch of medicine that deals with the prevention or correction of injuries or disorders of the skeletal system and associated muscles, joints, and ligaments. Orthopaedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections, tumors, and congenital disorders. The Greek word ‘ortho’ means straight and ‘pedics’ comes from the Greek ‘pais’ meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children. Over the years, the field of orthopedics has expanded to encompass many sub-specialties and the treatment of a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders in patients of all ages. Over the years, the field of orthopedics has expanded to encompass many sub-specialties and the treatment of a wide variety of musculoskeletal disorders in patients of all ages.After much of advancement in technology, quite a few surgeries in orthopedic section are being done by making use of a robot. It is known as Robotic surgery.
The musculoskeletal system includes:
Types of orthopaedic surgery
Total Joint Replacement
The patients that undergo a total joint replacement surgery are previously diagnosed with severe arthritis and seek pain relief and increased range of motion.During the procedure, surgeons assess damaged parts of the joint, which can lie within many joints in the body, and replace it with metal and plastic surfaces that are naturally shaped to restore knee movement and normal function. After technological advancements, now-a-days cementless implants are being used for customized fitting to increase longevity.
various kinds of joint replacement surgeries:
- Total hip replacement
- Total knee replacement
- Total shoulder replacement
- Total elbow replacement
- Partial Knee Replacement
- Wrist replacement
- Hand joint (small) replacement surgery
- Ankle joint replacement
- Minimally Invasive Knee Replacement Surgery [MIKRS]
Arthroscopic (Keyhole) surgery
Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure which uses a thin telescope with a light source (an arthroscope) to look inside joints. As well as being able to look inside, the surgeon can use an arthroscope to perform ‘keyhole’ surgery. Arthroscopy is most often used to investigate or treat knee problems. Arthroscopy can also be used for other joints, including the shoulder, hip, elbow, wrist and ankle joints, and even for hand or foot problems. The orthopaedic surgeon uses fine instruments which are also passed into the joint through a small incision in the skin (keyhole surgery). These instruments are used to cut, trim, take a sample to be studied under a microscope (biopsy), grab, etc, inside the joint.
The surgery can be used for various procedures which include:
- Taking out small bits of bone or cartilage that have broken off into the joint space.
- Repairing or taking out torn ligaments.
- Removing damaged cartilage.
- Removing tissue surrounding the joint (synovium), which has become inflamed.
The surgery deals with following
- Trauma and Fracture surgery
- High quality Swiss ‘AO’ systems help stabilize fractures
- Image intensifier, confirms perfect fracture fixations
- Ilizarov and External Fixation Device Management of open fractures
- Infected non-union of long bones
- Limb lengthening
- Correction of deformities
- Fusion of joints
The goal of a decompression surgery is usually to relieve pain caused by nerve root pinching. There are two common causes of lumbar nerve root pressure: from a lumbar herniated disc or lumbar spinal stenosis. This type of pain is usually referred to as a radiculopathy, or sciatica. It is a comprehensive interdisciplinary service that requires orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, physical and rehabilitation medicine and anesthesia.There are a variety of problems that may lead to spine surgery. One of the main reasons why patients seek professional help is because of the increasing back pain that impairs their day-to-day life.
Once a patient decides to have spine surgery, the results will eventually be experiencing less pain and with less pain come additional benefits like increased activity, better physical fitness and increased productivity.
The most common type of back surgery is the Spinal Fusion. Along with traditional disc surgeries of back and neck, microscopic surgeries, spinal tumors, endoscopic spinal surgery and minimal surgeries are also being performed..
Types of spine surgery.:
- Disc surgery Microsurgery for disc Fixation systems for fractures
- Surgery for correction of spinal deformities
- Surgery for spinal tuberculosis
- Endoscopic spine surgery
Arthritis means inflammation of the joints. Most people with arthritis will experience pain and difficulty moving around. Arthritis is the biggest cause of pain and physical disability. Arthritis is not just a disease of older people – it can affect people of all ages, including children. It is not clear what causes arthritis and there is no cure at present. However, there is plenty you can do to manage your condition and lead a full and active life.
Different terms used for Arthritis are:
- Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis
- Infective arthritis
- Traumatic arthritis
It is a branch to evaluate and treat musculoskeletal (bone, joint, or muscle) problems in a child who is still growing. This includes newborn babies through teenagers. Children with complex pediatric problems are best managed by a medical-surgical team approach. Pediatric orthopaedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and manage children’s musculoskeletal problems, such as:
- Limb and spine deformities noted at birth or later in life (clubfoot, scoliosis, limb length differences)
- Gait abnormalities (limping)
- Broken bones
- Bone or joint infections and tumors
Ortho-Oncology / Bone Oncology Surgery
This type of surgery is mainly for Bone cancer which can be primary bone cancer or secondary bone cancer.
Primary bone cancer starts in the bone; the cancer initially forms in the cells of the bone, while secondary cancer starts elsewhere in the body and spreads to the bone. Examples of primary bone cancer include steosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, and chondrosarcoma.
Staging the bone cancer
Bone cancer is has different stages which describe its level of advancement.
- Stage I –the cancer has not spread out of the bone. The cancer is not an aggressive one.
- Stage II –same as Stage I, but it is an aggressive cancer.
- Stage III.Tumors exist in multiple places of the same bone (at least two).
- Stage IV.The cancer has spread to other parts of the body
The bone cancer can be treated by:
- Radiotherapy (radiation therapy)
It is surgery to restore function or normal appearance by remaking defective organs or parts. The surgeries performed for bone infections, implants and prosthesis infections, complicated malunited fractures, congenital deformities and polio. The goal is intended to restore form and function in structures deformed or damaged bydisease, congenital anomaly, tumor, trauma, or infection.