Bone Marrow Transplant in India
A bone marrow or cord blood transplant is a process to replace unhealthy bone marrow with healthy bone marrow. Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat patients with:
- life-threatening blood cancers like leukemia
- diseases which result in bone marrow failure like a plastic anemia
- other immune system or genetic diseases
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) also known as hematopoietic stem cell Transplant or stem cell Transplant and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) are procedures that restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
Why is a bone marrow transplant needed?
The goal of a bone marrow transplant is to cure many diseases and types of cancer. When the doses of chemotherapy or radiation needed to cure a cancer are so high that a person’s bone marrow stem cells will be permanently damaged or destroyed by the treatment, a bone marrow transplant may be needed. Bone marrow transplants may also be needed if the bone marrow has been destroyed by a disease.
A bone marrow transplant can be used to:
- Replace diseased, non-functioning bone marrow with healthy functioning bone marrow (for conditions such as leukemia, a plastic anemia, and sickle cell anemia)
- Regenerate a new immune system that will fight existing or residual leukemia or other cancers not killed by the chemotherapy or radiation used in the transplant
- Replace the bone marrow and restore its normal function after high doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation are given to treat a malignancy. This process is often called rescue (for diseases such as lymphoma and neuroblastoma)
- Replace bone marrow with genetically healthy functioning bone marrow to prevent further damage from a genetic disease process (such as Hurler’s syndrome and adrenoleukodystrophy)
What are the different types of bone marrow transplants?
There are different types of bone marrow transplants depending on who the donor is. The different types of BMT include the following:
In autologous transplants, patients receive their own stem cells
In syngeneic transplants, patients receive stem cells from their identical twin
In allogeneic transplants, patients receive stem cells from their brother, sister, or parent. A person who is not related to the patient (an unrelated donor) also may be used
Unrelated bone marrow transplants (UBMT or MUD for matched unrelated donor).The genetically matched marrow or stem cells are from an unrelated donor. Unrelated donors are found through national bone marrow registries.
Umbilical cord blood transplant. Stem cells are taken from an umbilical cord immediately after delivery of an infant. These stem cells reproduce into mature, functioning blood cells quicker and more effectively than do stem cells taken from the bone marrow of another child or adult. The stem cells are tested, typed, counted, and frozen until they are needed for a transplant.