Infertility can also refer to the biological inability of an individual to contribute to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term. Infertility refers to an inability to conceive by natural means.Medical science has advanced and developed Fertility Treatment to cure conditions of infertility in patients, which is also called ‘Infertility Treatment’. This problem may be in either man or woman.
Cause of Infertility
- Alcohol consumption
- Being obese or overweight
- Eating Disorders
- Over exercising
- Not excercising
- Sexually transmitted infections
- Exposure to chemicals
- Mental stress
- Sperm Causes
Infertility Treatment Options
Infertility treatments are also known as Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)Thier are different types of fertility treatment options available and the treatment depends upon the pros and cons. Which technique you may need will depend largely on the cause of your infertility.
There are three main types of fertility treatment:
- medicines to assist fertility : Medicines often used to assist fertility . These are usually prescribed for women, and in some cases also be prescribed for men
- surgical procedures : Surgical procedures that may be used to investigate fertility problems and assist with fertility are Fallopian tube surgery and by Correction of an epididymal blockage and surgical extraction of sperm
- Intrauterine insemination (IUI):It involves sperm being placed into the womb through a fine plastic tube. Sperm is collected and washed in a fluid. The sperm are passed through a tube that enters the cervix and extends into the womb
- In-vitro fertilisation (IVF): In this the fertilisation of the egg occurs outside the body. The woman takes fertility medication to encourage her ovaries to produce more eggs than normal. Eggs are then removed from her ovaries and fertilised with sperm in a laboratory dish. A fertilised embryo is then put back inside the woman’s body.
ICSI (Intracytoplasmic sperm injection)
A single sperm is injected into an egg to achieve fertilization during an IVF procedure. The likelihood of fertilization improves significantly for men with low sperm concentrations
Donation of sperm or egg
If there is either no sperm or egg in one of the partners it is possible to receive sperm or eggs from a donor. Treatment with donor eggs is usually carried out using IVF.
With assisted hatching, an embryologist uses micromanipulation under a microscope to create a small hole in the zona pellucida..The embryo is successfully implant into the uterine lining, an embryo hatches out of the zona pellucida and attach to the walls of the uterus.
Electric or vibratory stimulation to achieve ejaculation
Ejaculation is acheived with electric or vibratory stimulation. This procedure is useful for men who cannot ejaculate normally
Surgical sperm aspiration
It is also known as TESA (Testicular Sperm Aspiration) .In this sperm is surgically harvested.
Sperm cryopreservation or sperm freezing is a method for men to preserve their sperm and store it in a bank for future use.In this process semen sample has been collected, it is placed on a warming block maintained at 37°C, to liquefy. At this time, the semen sample is mixed in a 1:1 ratio with a freezing medium that allows the sperm to survive the freezing and storage process.
Types of infertility
Depending upon the condition there are various types of infertility.
Primary Infertility: – It is the conditionin which a couple has not conceived a pregnancy after having unprotected intercourse for altleast a year.
Secondary infertility-It is defined as the inability to become pregnant, or to carry a pregnancy to term, following the birth of one or more biological children.
Sub-fertility : Subfertility generally describes any form of reduced fertility with prolonged time of unwanted non-conception
Male Infertility: It refers to a male’s inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female.It is is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport.
Female Infernity :The problems include failure to ovulate, blockages in the fallopian tubes, and abnormalities of the uterus such as fibroids and endometriosis
Male diagnosis for infertility
Diagnosis can involve a medical history from the man and a physical examination along with a semen analysis to check the number, shape and movement of sperm in the ejaculate.Blood tests may also be done to check the levels of hormones that control sperm production. Genetic investigations and testicular biopsies are sometimes done.
Female diagnosis for infertility
Following serum test are done :
- Serum TSH
- Serum LH
- Serum PRL
- Serum FSH
Apart from serum test following procedure test also conducted
Trans-vaginal Ultra Sonogram Transvaginal ultrasound is a test used to look at a woman’s reproductive organs, including the uterus, ovaries, and cervix by ultrasaound.
HSG (Hysterosalpingogram A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is an X-ray/ radiographic procedure that looks inside of the uterus for shape and patency of fallopian tubes and the area around them .
Laparoscopy : a surgical procedure in which a fibre-optic instrument is inserted through the abdominal wall to view the organs in the abdomen or permit small-scale surgery.
Laproscopic Hysteroscopy: It is used to look inside the uterine cavity
Cost of Infertility Treatments in India
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