Craniosynostosis Surgery in India
Craniosynostosis, or simply synostosis, is the early growing together (or fusion) of two or more bones of the skull. A newborn’s skull is made up of many separate bones that are not yet fused together. Because the brain grows quickly in the first two years of life, it is important that the skull bones remain open. In fact, complete fusion of the bones normally occurs late in the teen years. Synostosis interferes with normal growth of the brain and skull. The treatment of these deformities may ease cranial pressure. Craniosynostosis always appear in isolation and is also present in some syndromes that include Crouzon, Carpenters, Saethre-Chotzen, Apert, Opitz-C and Pfeiffer.
Types of Craniosynostosis
Craniosynostosis can be categorized into many types. These types are known by different names that depend upon on which suture is involved. This include –
Sagittal Synostosis (scaphocephaly)
This is the most common type of synostosis. It produces a boat-shaped head that is longer than it is wide, and is associated with frontal bossing and a palpable ridge along the closed suture.
- Unilateral Coronal Synostosis
- Unilateral craniosynostosis is typically characterized by the harlequin eye (almond shaped) and a flattened forehead.
- Bilateral coronal synostosis (brachycephaly) is characterized by a shortened skull in the antero-posterior dimension (brachycephaly) with vertical elongation (turribrachycephaly). This type can present with Apert’s syndrome and Crouzon’s syndrome or as an isolated finding.
In lambdoid synostosis, there is a flattening at the back of the skull and the ear is towards the back of the head.
Metopic Synostosis (trigonocephaly)
This form of synostosis is relatively uncommon (less than 10 percent of cases) and is characterized by a bony ridge in the midline of the forehead, a triangularly shaped head, a narrow forehead and eyes that are positioned close together.
Symptoms of Craniosynostosis
- full or bulging fontanelle (soft spot located on the top of the head)
- sleepiness (or less alert than usual)
- scalp veins may be very noticeable.
- increased irritability.
- high-pitched cry.
- poor feeding.
- projectile vomiting.
- increasing head circumference
An increase in pressure within the baby’s skull or raised intracranial pressure (ICP)
What causes craniosynostosis?
Craniosynostosis is the result of the premature fusion of different sections of the skull. This means the skull is unable to grow in affected areas.
When one area of the skull is prevented from growing, other areas may “overgrow” to compensate and limit the pressure developing around the brain. A lack of growth in some areas and compensatory growth in other areas will result in an altered head shape.
Craniosynostosis is usually classfied as either:
- nonsyndromic – there are no other birth defects and the cause is unknown
- syndromic – craniosynostosis is the result of one of several rare syndromes
- A syndrome is a range of symptoms related to a common cause, which is usually – but not always – genetic.
Diagnosis of Craniosynostosis
Diagnosis of craniosynostosis may include:
A physical exam. Your doctor will feel your baby’s head for abnormalities such as suture ridges and look for facial deformities.
Imaging studies. A computerized tomography (CT) scan of your baby’s skull will show whether any sutures have fused. …
Treatment of Craniosynostosis
The treatment depends upon following conditions –
- Type of craniosynostosis
- The age, overall health and medical history of the child
- The power of tolerance for particular procedures and medications
- Extent of the craniosynostosis
Craniosynostosis is treated by surgery that opens the fused sutures creating space for brain growth. A variety of surgical procedures may be used. The surgeon will discuss the options available for your child and choose the most appropriate procedure depending on the sutures involved and your child’s age when he or she is diagnosed. Often a neurosurgeon and a plastic surgeon work together for more complex types of craniosynostosis.
Endoscopic strip craniectomy
This minimally invasive procedure is typically performed on infants younger than three months of age, since it depends on extremely rapid brain growth to help reposition the cranial bones. Endoscopic assisted suturectomy usually takes less time in the operating room and requires a shorter hospital stay.
After an endoscopically assisted strip craniectomy, the child will wear a cranial remodeling helmet to help reshape the skull. The helmet is custom fit by an orthotist and is usually worn for 21 to 23 hours a day until the child reaches 9 to 12 months of age.
This unique approach decreases complications, surgical trauma, and need for transfusions during surgery, producing exceptional results with less overall risk to the baby. In our procedure, the prematurely closed suture is released, allowing the rapidly growing brain to remodel the skull and face to a normal shape. If there’s no underlying brain abnormality, the surgery allows the baby’s brain adequate space to grow and develop.
Cost of Craniosynostosis treatment
Craniosynostosis; surgery in India is done very safely and also at a very less cost in India. India is well known all over the world for its medical infrastructure, advanced treatment facilities and expert surgeons that makes surgery very comfortable and successful.