Cardiac Diagnostic Services in India
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy, unhealthy, heartfunction. Lifestyle changes is one of the major cause for increasing heart disease. Keeping a track on your heart health is necessary in such as situation. Cardiac check up can determine whether your heart is in a safe zone or not. If you are having a history of heart diseases, it is very vital to have a cardiac checkup done. A cardiac checkup may include various tests:
- Physical examination
- Blood tests : CBC , Blood sugar levels ,Lipid profile , urea count , creatinine
- 2D echo
- Treadmill Test
- 24 hrs Ambulatory BP
- 24 hrs Holter study
- X-ray (Chest)
- Today there are a number of Cardiac Diagnostic Services available:
64 Slice Heart Scan
The 64-slice CT scan provides dramatically detailed images of your coronary arteries and heart in just minutes, and without requiring an invasive and expensive hospital-based cardiac catheterization. 64-Slice CT provides High Definition scans with the ability to see details as small as 0.4 mm (about 1/50th of an inch), create stunningly detailed images of organs and blood vessels for a more accurate diagnosis. It helps in detecting the presence of calcium build up, non-calcified plaque deposits, which may cause a heart attack
Holter Monitor Studies and Event Monitors
A Holter heart monitor test
A Holter monitor is a machine that continuously records the heart’s rhythms. The monitor is worn for 24 – 48 hours during normal activity. Electrodes (small conducting patches) are stuck onto your chest. These are attached by wires to a small recording monitor. You carry the Holter monitor in a pocket or pouch worn around your neck or waist. The monitor runs on batteries.
While you wear the monitor, it records your heart’s electrical activity.
- Keep a diary of what activities you do while wearing the monitor, and how you feel.
- After 24 to 48 hours, you will return the monitor to your doctor’s office.
- The doctor will look at the records and see if there have been any abnormal heart rhythms
An event heart monitor
A cardiac event recorder is a battery-powered portable device that you control to tape-record your heart’s electrical activity (ECG) when you have symptoms. There are two types of event recorders: a loop memory monitor and a symptom event monitor. Cardiac event recorders and other devices that record your ECG as you go about your daily activities are also called ambulatory electrocardiographic monitors.
- A cardiac event recorder makes a record of your electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) when you have fast or slow heartbeats, or feel dizzy or like you want to faint. It can also be used to see how you respond to medicines.
- Some cardiac event recorders store your ECG in memory in the monitor. Your ECG can be sent by telephone to a receiving center or to your doctor.
- There are no risks when using a cardiac event recorder.
320 slice CT Scanner
It provides view of the heart and covers the whole heart in one rotation. It is difficult to take an image of the heart in between two beats. But this one machine is quick enough to take an image in between the two heart beats. The images produced by the scanner are crisp and clear and hence make the diagnosis very accurate. ine is used not just to scan the heart but can be used to scan other organs like the brain, kidneys and organs.
Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE)
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a test that produces pictures of your heart. TEE uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to make detailed pictures of your heart and the arteries that lead to and from it. Unlike a standardechocardiogram, the echo transducer that produces the sound waves for TEE is attached to a thin tube that passes through your mouth, down your throat and into your esophagus. Because the esophagus is so close to the upper chambers of the heart, very clear images of those heart structures and valves can be obtained. The detailed pictures provided by TEE can help doctors see:
- The size of your heart and how thick its walls are.
- How well your heart is pumping.
- If there is abnormal tissue around your heart valves that could indicate bacterial, viral or fungal infections, or cancer.
- If blood is leaking backward through your heart valves (regurgitation) or if your valves are narrowed or blocked (stenosis).
- If blood clots are in the chambers of your heart, in particular the upper chamber, for example after a stroke.
TEE is often used to provide information during surgery to repair heart valves, a tear in the aorta or congenital heart lesions
Stress echocardiography is a test that uses ultrasound imaging to show how well your heart muscle is working to pump blood to your body. It is most often used to detect a decrease in blood flow to the heart from narrowing in the coronary arteries. During a stress echocardiography, you’ll exercise on a treadmill or stationary bike while your doctor monitors your blood pressure and heart rhythm. When your heart rate reaches peak levels, your doctor will take ultrasound images of your heart to determine whether your heart muscles are getting enough blood and oxygen while you exercise.
Your doctor will need to see how your heart functions while you’re at rest to get an accurate idea of how it’s working.
After the resting echocardiogram, you will exercise on a treadmill or stationary bicycle. Depending on your physical condition, your doctor may ask you to increase the intensity of your exercise. You’ll probably need to exercise for six to 10 minutes, or until you feel tired, to raise your heart rate as much as possible
As soon as your doctor tells you to stop exercising, they’ll perform another ultrasound. This is to take more images of your heart working under stress. You’ll then have time to cool down.
Electrophysiology (EP) Study
Electrophysiology studies (EPS) are tests that help doctors understand the nature of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias).
- Electrophysiology studies test the electrical activity of your heart to find where an arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat) is coming from.
- These results can help you and your doctor decide whether you need medicine, a pacemaker, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), cardiac ablation or surgery.
- These studies take place in a special room called an electrophysiology (EP) lab or catheterization (cath) lab while you are mildly sedated.
During this process, one or more thin, flexible wires, which are known as catheters, are put into a blood vessel, later guiding into the heart. Every catheter has got two or more electrodes for measuring the electrical signals to heart while they are travelling from one chamber to the other.
During the test:
- A nurse will put an IV (intravenous line) in your arm. You’ll get medicine (a sedative) that will help you relax. But you’ll be awake and able to follow instructions during the test.
- Your nurse will clean and shave the part of your body where the doctor will be working. This is usually in the groin but may be the arm or neck.
- You’ll be given a shot – a local anesthetic will be given — to make the area numb. Your doctor will make a needle puncture through your skin and into your blood vessel. A small straw-sized tube called a sheath will be inserted into your artery or vein. The doctor will gently guide several specialized EP catheters into your blood vessel through the sheath and advance them to your heart. A video screen will show the position of the catheters. You may feel some pressure in the area where the sheath was inserted, but you shouldn’t feel any pain.
- Your doctor will send small electric pulses through the catheters to make your heart beat at different speeds. You may feel your heart beat stronger or faster.
- Electrical signals produced by your heart will be picked up by the special catheters and recorded. This is called cardiac mapping and allows the doctor to locate where arrhythmias are coming from,
- Your doctor will remove the catheters and the IV line. Your nurse will put pressure on the puncture site to stop any bleeding.
- EPS usually last 1 to 4 hours.
A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stageheart failure or severe coronary artery disease
A heart transplant is usually recommended if a person has severe heart failure – when the heart is having trouble pumping enough blood around the body , is expected to die within in a year without a transplant , has not responded to conventional treatments for heart failure (read more about the treatment of heart failure)
following cases are recommended for heart transplant:
- Severe heart disease since birth
- Coronary artery disease
- Heart valve disease with congestive heart failure
- Life-threatening abnormal heart beats (when other therapies fail)
- Aortic disease
- Coronary artery disease
- Heart disease symptoms including angina, shortness of breath and palpitations.
- Vascular disease
- Congestive heart failure
- Atrial fibrillation and flutter
- Hypercholesterolemia and risk factor modification
- Myocardial Infarction
- Mitral valve prolapsed
Patients for whom this surgery is not recommended:
- Kidney / lung/ liver disease
- Insulin-dependent diabetes with poor function of other organs
- Blood vessel disease of the neck and leg
- Other life-threatening diseases
Risks of the procedure
As with any surgery, complications may occur. Potential risks associated with heart transplantation may include, but are not limited to, the following:
- Bleeding during or after the surgery
- Blood clots that can cause heart attack, stroke, or lung problems
- Breathing problems
- Kidney failure
- Coronary arteriopathy (similar to coronary artery disease)
The new heart may be rejected by the body’s immune system. Rejection is the body’s normal reaction to a foreign object or tissue. When a new heart is transplanted into a recipient’s body, the immune system reacts to what it perceives as a threat and attacks the new organ, not realizing that the transplanted heart is beneficial. To allow the transplanted organ to survive in a new body, medications must be taken to trick the immune system into accepting the transplant and not attacking it as a foreign object.
The medications used to prevent or treat rejection have side effects. The exact side effects will depend on the specific medications that are taken.
Heart transplant is performed as under
A heart transplant procedure is carried out under general anaesthetic (where you are unconscious) and normally takes between four and six hours.
The heart that is preserved in a solution, You will be connected to a heart bypass machine, which acts as an artificial heart, This machine helps the supply of blood through the entire body and brain while the operation process is being conducted .A thin flexible tube called a catheter will be inserted to drain your bladder during and after the operation.
The procedure involves the following steps:
- A cut (incision) is made over your breastbone and the bone separated, allowing the surgeon to access your heart.
- Your heart is removed, leaving behind a portion of the right and left atria (the two upper chambers of the heart).
- The new heart is then connected to the aorta (main artery from the heart), pulmonary artery and the remaining part of the atria.
- For more information on Heart Transplantation criteria ,please read Heart Transplant Guidelines in India
We at Alphine Life are associated with best hospitals for Heart transplant in India and top surgeons for Heart transplant in India. You may contact us by
sending us your medical reports and asking for a quote. Please be assured of best and low cost treatment from world class hospitals and Doctors